Saturday, July 26

Child Immunization And Child Immunization Schedule


Immunization is one of the most important things you can do for the health of your child because it helps the body develop lasting resistance to serious and often fatal infections and diseases. From the age of two months, your child should be regularly immunized so that resistance can be developed and maintained. While immunization is generally a safe and effective way to protect against serious diseases and infections, you may have some concerns and questions about it.

Immunisation has saved hundreds of thousands of children from death and handicap. Since the introduction of routine childhood immunization, many diseases including poliomyelitis, tetanus and diphtheria have been virtually eliminated.

What Is Immunization?

What Is Immunization
Immunization is a safe way of giving children a 'mini dose' of an infection. The child's immune system builds resistance to the infection from this tiny dose. Later, when the child or adult comes into contact with the real disease in the community, they are protected from harm. Eight serious childhood diseases and serious infections can be prevented by immunization. Immunization is given by injection, or in the case of polio vaccine, taken as drops by mouth.

What Immunization Should My Child Be Given?
 
Immunization begins when your child is two months old (see panel at the bottom of this article). The first vaccines given are triple antigen (to protect against diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus), Hib vaccine (to protect against meningitis) and poliomyelitis vaccine. At the age of one year, another vaccine called MMR is given to protect against measles, mumps and rubella (German measles). It is important that children receive all the doses shown in the box overleaf.

Where Can You Go?

Most children are given immunizations by their GP or by nurses at a health authority immunization clinic. Computerised registers are kept in most areas.

Keeping Track Of Your Child's Immunizations
This is best done in the child's personal health record book which is provided by the Department of Health. Otherwise, ask your GP about it. You will need to have this record when your child starts pre-school or school.

When Is My Child's Immunization Due?

If your child is being immunized by a GP, ask that GP when the next immunization is due. Every time your child receives an immunisation, a record is kept on the register. An optional recall reminder system can inform you when your child's next immunization is due. Information on the register is confidential.

Are there any side-effects?
 
Minor side-effects such as redness or soreness at the site of the injection are common. These may last a day or two. Fever sometimes occurs and may be relieved by giving your child an appropriate dose of paracetamol mixture for his/her age. Serious side-effects are exceedingly rare and are most unlikely to cause any permanent harm to your child. However, contact your doctor immediately if your child:
Has a high fever (38 degrees or more)
Is very irritable or sleepy
Has any other unexplained problems.
 
How Long Do Vaccines Take To Work?

Most vaccines take some weeks to work and your child will only be fully protected after completing the full course for each vaccine.

The protective effect from vaccines is not lifelong. Some vaccines like tetanus last for only 10 years; after that a booster injection needs to be given. If you want more information, ask your GP.

Even when all doses of vaccine have been given, not everyone is fully protected after completing the course for each vaccination. Whooping cough vaccine fully protects 80-90 per cent of children who have been immunized. Measles and rubella vaccines protect more than 95 per cent of children.

Should Immunisation Be Postponed If My Child Has An Infection Or Allergy?

Babies can be immunized safely if they have minor coughs or colds without a fever, or if they are taking antibiotics but are well. Children with asthma, eczema, hay fever and allergies may be safely immunized but remember to tell your GP. If your child has had a severe allergic reaction to egg, talk to your GP again before the measles vaccine is given at the age of one year.

Homoeopathic 'immunization' offers no protection against infectious diseases.

Some Soothing Tips
Try to eat a well-balanced diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables
It's important not to frighten your child about doctors or needles. Try to make a game out of the visits
Always comfort and distract your child if he/she is in pain
Try teaching your child a simple breathing technique - taking a deep breath then blowing out several times. Studies have shown it can ease the sting of having shots
 
Standard Childhood Immunization Schedule

AGEVACCINE
2 monthsDiphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (Triple antigen)
Oral polio vaccine
Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
Meningitis C
3 monthsDiphtheria/tetanus/pertussis
Oral polio vaccine
Hib (b)
Meningitis C
4 monthsDiphtheria/tetanus/pertussis
Oral polio vaccine
Hib (b)
Meningitis C
12 - 15 monthsMeasles/Mumps/Rubella (MMR)
Hib C (1 only) - if not given before
4 - 5 years
(or prior to school entry)
Diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis
Oral polio vaccine
MMR
15 - 19 years
(or prior to leaving school)
Adult diphtheria/tetanus
Oral polio vaccine


By Dr Peter Stott.

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